Sanduíche submarino

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A submarine sandwich, Também conhecido como abaixo, hoagie, heróiou amolador, is a type of sandwich consisting of a length of bread or roll split lengthwise and filled with a variety of meats, cheeses, vegetables, and condiments.[1][2] The sandwich has no standardized name,[1] with over a dozen variations used around the world.[3]

Os termos submarino abaixo are widespread and not assignable to any certain region, though many of the localized terms are clustered in the northeastern United States.

History and etymology

Os Italian sandwich originated in several different Italian American comunidades no Northeastern United States from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries.[4] Portland, Maine, claims to be the birthplace of the Italian sandwich and it is considered Maine's signature sandwich.[4] The popularity of this Italian-American cuisine has grown from its origins in Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, New York, New Jersey, Massachusettse Rhode Island to most parts of the Estados Unidos Canadá, and with the advent of chain restaurants, is now available in many parts of the world.[5][6][7]


The use of the term "submarine" or "sub" (after the resemblance of the roll to the shape of a submarino) is widespread.[1] While some accounts source the name as originating in New London, Connecticut (site of the United States Navy's primary submarine base) during II Guerra Mundial, written advertisements from 1940 in Wilmington, Delaware, indicate the term originated prior to the United States' entry into World War II.[8]

One theory says the submarine was brought to the U.S. by Dominic Conti (1874–1954), an Italian immigrant who came to New York in the early 1900s.[4] He is said to have named it after seeing the recovered 1901 submarine called Fenian Ram no Paterson Museum of New Jersey in 1928. His granddaughter has stated the following:Predefinição: Quote


Workers read the Hog Island News
Salami, ham and cheeses on a hoagie roll

O termo hoagie originated in the Filadélfia área. The Philadelphia Bulletin reported, in 1953, that Italians working at the Primeira Guerra Mundial–era shipyard in Philadelphia known as Hog Island, Onde emergency shipping was produced for the war effort, introduced the sandwich by putting various meats, cheeses, and lettuce between two slices of bread.Predefinição: Citação necessária This became known as the "Hog Island" sandwich; shortened to "Hoggies", then the "hoagie". offers the following origin of the term hoagie. n. American English (originally Philadelphia) word for "hero, large sandwich made from a long, split roll"; originally hoggie (c. 1936), traditionally said to be named for Big Band songwriter Hoagland Howard "Hoagy" Carmichael (1899–1981), but the use of the word predates his celebrity and the original spelling seems to suggest another source (perhaps "hog"). Modern spelling is c. 1945, and may have been altered by influence of Carmichael's nickname.[9]

Os Philadelphia Almanac and Citizen's Manual offers a different explanation, that the sandwich was created by early-twentieth-century street vendors called "hokey-pokey men", who sold antipasto salad, meats, cookies and buns with a cut in them. When Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta H.M.S. Pinafore opened in Philadelphia in 1879, bakeries produced a long loaf called the pinafore. Entrepreneurial "hokey-pokey men" sliced the loaf in half, stuffed it with antipasto salad, and sold the world's first "hoagie".[10]

Another explanation is that the word hoagie arose in the late 19th to early 20th century, among the Italian community in South Philadelphia, when "on the hoke" meant that someone was destitute. Deli owners would give away scraps of cheeses and meats in an Italian bread-roll known as a "hokie", but the Italian immigrants pronounced it "hoagie".[3]

Shortly after World War II, there were numerous varieties of the term in use throughout Philadelphia. By the 1940s, the spelling "hoagie" had come to dominate less-used variations like "hoogie" and "hoggie". It is never spelled hoagy.[11] By 1955, restaurants throughout the area were using the term hoagie. Listings in Pittsburgh show hoagies arriving in 1961 and becoming widespread in that city by 1966.[11]

Former Philadelphia mayor (and later Pennsylvania governador) Ed Rendell declared the hoagie the "Official Sandwich of Philadelphia".[12] However, there are claims that the hoagie was actually a product of nearby Chester, Pensilvânia.[13] DiCostanza's in Boothwyn, Pennsylvania, claims that the mother of DiConstanza's owner originated the hoagie in 1925 in Chester. DiCostanza relates the story that a customer came into the family deli and through an exchange matching the customer's requests and the deli's offerings, the hoagie was created.[14][15]

Woolworth's to-go sandwich was called a hoagie in all U.S. stores.[16]

Pão sandwiches are sometimes referred to as "Vietnamese hoagies" in Philadelphia.[17]


New York style meatball hero with mozzarella

The New York term herói is first attested in 1937.[18] The name is sometimes credited to the New York Herald Tribune escritor de comida Clementine Paddleford in the 1930s, but there is no good evidence for this. It is also sometimes claimed that it is related to the giroscópio, but this is unlikely as the giroscópio was unknown in the United States until the 1960s.[5]

Herói (plural usually Template:Not a typo, não Heróis[19]) remains the prevailing New York City term for most sandwiches on an oblong roll with a generally Italian flavor, in addition to the original described above. Pizzeria menus often include berinjela à parmegiana, chicken parmigianae almôndega Template:Not a typo, each served with sauce.


Pastrami amolador

A common term in Nova Inglaterra is amolador, but its origin has several possibilities.[20] One theory has the name coming from Italian-American slang for a dock worker, among whom the sandwich was popular.[5] Others say that it was called a grinder because the bread's hard crust required much chewing.[21]

In Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware, and parts of New England, the term amolador usually refers to a quente submarine sandwich (meatball, sausage, etc.), whereas a cold sandwich (e.g., cold cuts) is usually called a "sub".[8] In the Philadelphia area, the term amolador is also applied to any hoagie that is toasted in the oven after assembly, whether or not it is made with traditionally hot ingredients.


O termo cunha é utilizado em Westchester County, New York, Putnam County, New York, Dutchess County, New Yorke Fairfield County, Connecticut – four counties directly north of New York City.

Some base the name cunha on a diagonal cut in the middle of the sandwich, creating two halves or "wedges", or a "wedge" cut out of the top half of the bread with the fillings "wedged" in between, or a sandwich that is served between two "wedges" of bread. It has also been said cunha is just short for "sandwich", with the name having originated from an Italian deli owner located in Yonkers, who got tired of saying the whole word.[22][8]


O termo spukie ("spukkie" or "spuckie") is unique to the city of Boston and derives from the Italian word spuccadella, meaning "long roll". The word spuccadella is not typically found in Italian dictionaries, which may suggest that it could be a regional Italian dialect, or possibly a Boston Italian-American innovation. Spukie is typically heard in parts of Dorchester and South Boston. Some bakeries in Boston's North End neighborhood have homemade spuccadellas for sale.[23]

Outros tipos

A Gatsby sanduíche

Popularity and availability

Rolls filled with condiments have been common in several European countries for more than a century, notably in France and Scotland.

In the United States, from its origins with the Italian-American labor force in the northeast, the sub began to show up on menus of local pizzerias. As time went on and popularity grew, small restaurants, called hoagie shops and sub shops, that specialized in the sandwich began to open.[5]

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Subs or their national equivalents were already popular in many European, Asian and Australasian countries when late 20th-century franqueado chain restaurants and comida rápida made them even more popular and increased the prevalence of the word abaixo. Many outlets offer non-traditional ingredient combinations.

In the United States, there are many chain restaurants that specialize in subs. Major international chains include Subs Firehouse, Quiznos, Mr. Sub and the largest restaurant chain in the world, Metrô.[24] The sandwich is also often available at supermercados, local delise lojas de conveniência, Tais como Wawa, who annually run a sub promotional event during the summer called Hoagiefest.[25]

Veja também

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Links externos

Template:Cuisine of the United States